India's Security Environment: An Overview

The body of a suspected militant lies amongst rubble after a gun battle with the Indian army in Kachwa Mqam, 55 km (34 miles), north of Srinagar. Two separatist militants were killed and one residential house destroyed in an encounter between Indian security forces and separatist militants in the village of Kachwa Mqam, police said.

Pakistan

In the 1980s, the Pak administration began lending tacit support to the Khalistan movement across the then porous borders in Punjab. By the early 1990s, Kashmir began to boil and the support from state and non-state actors across the border became obvious.

And post-1992, it was proxy war at its best as Islamabad supported both Kashmiri militants while also shielding proclaimed international offenders like Dawood Ibrahim on its turf. The military regime that governed the country for most of this period had an obvious axe to grind. If you cannot win on a battlefield, weaken the enemy from within became the motto.